What did the land transfer bring to the farmers?

[China Agricultural Machinery Industry News Network China as a large agricultural country, the state issued a series of related documents, encourage rural land, encourage moderate scale operation to encourage the transition to contract large family farmers. However, after several years of development and changes, in some major agricultural production areas, what is the current state of production and operation of large land transfer households? Has the land transfer helped them realize their dream of getting rich? These issues are worthy of further discussion.
What did the land transfer bring to the farmers?
Recently, the reporter visited the agricultural province of Hebei to visit the investigation.
In 2014, in order to implement the spirit of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee and the Central Rural Work Conference, the Hebei Provincial Party Committee and the Provincial Government proposed to comprehensively deepen rural reforms and accelerate the transfer of agricultural land. The practice in Hebei is to encourage the management rights of cultivated land, forest land and grassland to be transferred to large professional households, family farms, farmer cooperatives and agricultural enterprises in the open market.
Circulation rent survey: an acre of land rose nearly 600 yuan in 7 years
Standing in front of the plan, Zhang Heping, a villager from the Nangong Palace in Xingtai, Hebei, seems to be unable to do anything. In 2010, he founded the Peace Cotton Planting Professional Cooperative, which planted more than 700 acres of cotton through land transfer. But now, the original 700 acres of cotton has been reduced to 200 acres.
Zhang Heping said that the falling prices have forced him to reduce the cotton planting area: "In 2009, the cotton price was 3.5 yuan per kilogram, and in 2015 it fell to 2.7 yuan a pound. Although from 2014, the state subsidized one mu of cotton. 150 yuan, but this part of the money is directly replenished to the land leasing party. As a major cotton grower, there is no subsidy."
In addition, the rising land rents are also really making Zhang Heping unable to eat: "In 2009, Nangong City land transfer rental price was 280 yuan per mu. In 2010, it was 350 yuan per mu. In 2016, it was 850 yuan per mu."
From 280 yuan to 850 yuan, this greatly increased the cost of planting Zhang Heping. At present, more than 500 mu of land that has expired in Zhang Heping’s land has returned to the hands of farmers. However, this part of the land that has been withdrawn from rent has not been re-exported because it does not have the conditions for the contiguous film.
Ma Ganlin, director of the Nangong City Agricultural Work Committee Office, told reporters that in recent years, due to the bad market conditions, the flow of land transfer is not as good as working for others.
Ma Ganlin said: "From the perspective of Nangong City, local farmers are generally not very willing to cover the land. Many large contractors will not flow after the contract expires, and the land will return to the farmers."
How much is the rent?
Farmers: do not look at the contract, rely on experience
The rise in land prices, in addition to market factors, is also a human factor. Jiao Ruichang, a legal person in the Qinghe County Tycoon Crop Planting Cooperative, told the reporter that in the process of contracting land, most of the land rent is “based on experience”: “Some farmers feel that 500 yuan is suitable for one mu, and some feel that 1000 yuan is suitable. Fanglian film, balance contradictions, have to increase land rent."
At the same time, in order to increase their own income, the common people often compare each other. Jiao Ruichang said: "When ordinary people see high returns, they are always asking for a substantial increase in land rent and breach of contract."
In Guo Baodong, secretary of the Party Committee of Bawang Town, Qinghe County, this reflects the weak nature of the contractual spirit of rural residents in China today. "For example, when ordering agriculture, if the price is high, the people will not sell it to you, or not all of it to you; if the price is low, you may encounter the business owner saying 'I don't accept it', thus Tearing the contract."
It is difficult to reconcile the large circulation households with the land lessor.
For the large circulation households, if the land rent given is high, will it be able to flow smoothly to the land? In the view of the Tengxun test of the chairman of the People’s Congress of the Bawang Township of Qinghe County, this is not the case.
In the years of rural work experience, Tengxun test felt that the phenomenon of “nail house” prevalent in land circulation affected the process of large-scale land transfer. Tengxun test said that in 2014, in Jiaoguanying Village of Baying Town, an industrial and commercial capital wanted to transfer about 700 mu of land and use the local sandy soil to grow sweet potatoes. At that time, the Circulating Party planned to lease at a price of 880 yuan per mu, but in the work it encountered opposition from about 10 farmers. "There are ten households, saying that they don't rent anything to them. How much money is not rented, and there is no change in land exchange."
Although these 10 farmers only accounted for about 40 mu of land, because the land was not concentrated, the remaining land could not be contiguous, resulting in the failure of the land transfer. The 3,000 mu of cultivated land in the village has not been transferred yet. Zhao Jinghui, director of the Qinghe County Rural Work Leading Group Office, believes that this stems from the strong dependence of farmers on the land: “The people look at the land relatively heavy. If they circulate, they will feel that they have no bottom. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the farmers. Income.
Land transfer problems are not just land issues
In the interview, the reporter learned that in addition to the contradiction between large and small renters, the land transfer is difficult, the price of food is falling, the anti-risk ability of large-scale contracting is low, and the imperfect agricultural insurance mechanism has made many large-scale households deterred.
In Hengshui City, another agricultural city in Hebei Province, large circulation households also face many difficulties. The total cultivated area of ​​Shenzhou City under the jurisdiction of Hengshui is 1.3 million mu. At present, the land transfer area in the city is only 483,000 mu.
In Xiliqiu Village, Wangjiajing Town, Shenzhou City, the villager Sun Renzhong responded to the national call in 2010 and established the Renzhong Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperative, which transferred 3,000 mu of land for large-scale planting. In the summer of 2014, a hailstorm caused Sun Renzhong’s 3,000 mu of wheat to be harvested and suffered heavy losses.
Sun Renzhong said that the land he transferred was in agricultural insurance. However, the amount of compensation for agricultural insurance is a drop in the bucket for the land that is not collected. “The investment in an acre of land is about 1,000 yuan per year, but the agricultural insurance compensation is 300 yuan per mu.”
The reporter learned in the interview that not only the amount of compensation for agricultural insurance is not high, but also there are many difficulties in determining the damage. In 2015, due to a strong wind, almost all of the corn grown by Sun Renzhong was blown off. It should have harvested 1,600 kilograms of corn on an acre of land. In that year, it only harvested more than 1,200 kilograms per acre. After Sun Renzhong reported the disaster to the insurance department, the insurance company did not pay for the reason that “the production was not obvious”.
He lamented: "Most of the cooperatives are established by farmers, and the funds are limited. Our common saying here is that 'the crops are mixed with God' and the people have no ability to resist risks."
The decline in food prices, the increase in land rents, and the difficulty in paying for agricultural insurance... A series of problems have made it difficult for large circulation households across Hebei.
How to make the land flow smoothly?
Li Guoxiang, a researcher at the Institute of Rural Development of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, believes that the legal system of land transfer should be improved to standardize the land transfer and let the spirit of the contract penetrate the hearts of the peasants. He pointed out: "The spirit of the contract is actually the basic quality of the citizens of the rule of law. The spirit of cooperation and the spirit of the contract should be gradually cultivated, but the ideological work cannot be simply done to prevent the farmers from resisting."
In the face of fluctuations in crop prices and rising land rents, Li Guoxiang told reporters that it should not be limited to direct leasing of land, and actively explore diversified circulation models such as land custody and land share dividends. Avoid risks. "This has avoided the increase in the price of crops, the rising rents of land, the increase in costs brought by the large circulation households, the inability to make ends meet, and the protection of farmers' enthusiasm for planting and the burden of farming."
At present, the compensation ability of China's agricultural insurance is relatively low, the damage is difficult, the compensation standard is not high, and the scope of payment is not wide. Li Guoxiang suggested that in the future, agricultural insurance should be gradually used as an important means to support agricultural development, especially important measures to support agricultural scale operations. "In addition to including the losses caused by natural disasters such as droughts and landslides into the scope of claims, pilots should be established to reduce the operating losses caused by falling agricultural product prices, and to pay a large amount to the large-scale households through price insurance, thereby expanding agricultural insurance. In addition to the field crops, economic crops such as vegetables are also included in the insurance coverage, and the benefits are gradually increased."
(Original title: The income of large households is not as good as that of migrant workers, and the land rent is soaring. The reporter’s field investigation: Why is land circulation so contradictory?)

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